There is a big disparity between regions in Indonesia. Half the population lives in the rural eastern regions, which are less developed and have the worst WASH and health indicators in the country. Preventable diarrheal disease, which is related to a lack of safe water and poor sanitation and hygiene practice, is still the third biggest cause of neonatal deaths in Indonesia.
The Indonesian Government has launched several (national) programmes and strategies regarding water and sanitation in Indonesia, including the ambitious target of universal coverage for access to water and improved sanitation by 2019 . However despite this enabling political and legislative environment, there are still four huge challenges that hamper overall progress:
- Lack of scalable and sustainable sanitation service delivery models. These are essential to support the Government of Indonesia’s goal of ensuring universal access to sanitation and hygiene by 2019.
- Weak leadership and lack of commitment at the district level. This is often a result of the fact that sanitation and hygiene are not given high enough priority at national and sub-national level, partly because of competing priorities. Decentralisation transfers the responsibilities and decision-making power for local development planning and budgeting from central to district government. Although it is perceived as a positive change in the long run, district governments lack the capacity to fulfil their responsibilities in providing basic services (such as water supply, sanitation and hygiene) to communities in their jurisdiction.
- Lack of capacity at local levels for implementing national policies and strategies. Despite decentralisation, most policies and strategies for implementation at sub-national level are still developed at national level. This creates a disconnection between national and district levels, and as a result, translating national strategies to the district level remains a big challenge. Most (national) programmes do not put enough emphasis on developing organisational and institutional capacities at district and lower levels. Consequently there is not enough capacity to initiate, lead, implement and sustain rural sanitation and hygiene programmes.
- Inequalities in access to improved sanitation and hygiene facilities. Even though progress towards national and international targets is being made, this progress has been uneven. Sharp geographic, sociocultural and economic inequalities in access persist across Indonesia.
In 2008 The Ministry of Health initiated the National Sanitation Strategy (STBM ). This applies a community-based approach for implementing sanitation and hygiene programmes, but has not been fully implemented. As a consequence of too much focus on meeting the MDG sanitation targets, most programmes tend to concentrate on construction of new infrastructure (STBM Pillar 1: stop open defecation). Furthermore, more priority seems to have been given to the quantity of facilities rather than their quality (sustained long-term use). Demand and technical knowhow at village level remains too limited to ensure proper and sustained functioning and use of the services.
Simavi’s experience with SHAW has shown that the district governments are the most strategic actors at the implementation level in ensuring the institutionalisation of STBM. It is most effective when government takes on the leading role in the implementation of national strategies. Indonesia’s decentralised system positions the district government as the ultimate decision maker for local development strategies. At the end of the SHAW Programme, our partners have demonstrated that all of the nine SHAW districts have committed budget for either STBM monitoring, follow up, or replication. Although the utilisation still needs to be monitored, and budget commitment for this year still depends on the budget approval by the parliament, this shows that there are potential funding resources available at local government levels. Moreover, the recently approved law on Village Funds will also provide an important resource opportunity for the villages to implement and sustain STBM. The core of STBM activities is at the village level, and the Village Funds will allow the villages to manage their own plan and budget according to their needs. A recent internal review revealed that some 50% of all villages intervened during SHAW allocated village funds to support and sustain STBM activities at village level.
To achieve district-wide access to, and utilisation of, sustainable and improved sanitation and hygiene facilities, and to contribute towards Indonesian Government’s target of providing universal access to water and sanitation for all population by 2019. Within the foreseeable future we want all communities within the selected programme districts to have access to and utilise sustainable and improved sanitation and hygiene facilities.
The ultimate aim is to develop a workable model that can be applied anywhere in Indonesia with the potential to accelerate progress towards achieving the goal of universal coverage of water and sanitation in Indonesia. This supports the Government of Indonesia’s vision of achieving universal access to sanitation by 2019.
The specific objective is that by 2018, local government authorities (at district, sub-district and village level) in seven districts in Eastern Indonesia have ensured sustainable sanitation and hygiene through the successful implementation of the STBM 5-pillars.
At the end of the 3.5 years programme, we expect the seven districts to be able to independently continue the implementation of the 5 STBM pillars in all the villages that have not yet been reached with interventions. It is also expected that by further refining the implementation model of the programme it will be suitable to roll out STBM to other districts. The ultimate aim is to develop a workable model that can be applied anywhere in Indonesia with the potential to accelerate progress towards achieving universal coverage of water and sanitation in Indonesia.
The ‘Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene in Eastern Indonesia’ (SEHATI) programme is implemented by a consortium of Simavi and five Indonesian NGO partners (Plan International Indonesia, Yayasan Dian Desa, CD Bethesda, Rumsram, Yayasan Masyarakat Peduli) and supported by IRC WASH.
SEHATI will employ an adjusted model to accelerate progress in sanitation and hygiene by strengthening the capacity of local government actors (at district, sub-district and community level), private sector sanitation entrepreneurs and other local stakeholders. This is done by equipping the different stakeholders with the right models, approaches, tactics, tools and skills to achieve full coverage in their districts over time.
The programme will put district authorities in the forefront. This is to encourage local leadership and local ownership of the development process and to ensure continuation of the activities when outside involvement comes to an end.
Focus on lobby & advocacy
A more targeted advocacy strategy at national level will be developed within the consortium in collaboration with other stakeholders. An example of an advocacy message to the Ministry of Health is to implement STBM holistically on the basis of a scalable model and ensuring that an enabling legislative and budgetary process is in place so that districts and villages can utilise their funds more effectively.
We will also maintain an active relationship and collaboration with the other programmes and stakeholders working in the sector, and contribute to a national sector-wide advocacy. Working along and together with other development stakeholders at national level is vital. Two partners within this consortium, Simavi and Plan International Indonesia, are already active members of Jejaring AMPL, a national network of government and civil society organisations in the WASH sector. There will also be linkages to other Netherlands-supported programmes.
Learning and sharing
The programme will focus on sharing and promoting the experiences of SHAW, the knowledge and lessons learned. Exchange and study visits between the nine districts of the SHAW programme and the new locations will be regularly planned.
The possibility will be explored to support the setting up of local, regional or national sharing and learning platforms (or supporting an existing one) in order to facilitate learning and discussions and to promote the roll out of STBM.
We will advocate for learning and sharing at provincial level. Ultimately the province would play the role of the implementing partners: to build capacity and support the district authorities. Learning and sharing at the national level will be done by making use of existing networks or initiatives.
Private sector involvement
Trade opportunities for private sector collaboration, which may include potential involvement of the Dutch water sector, will be promoted. Simavi’s experience indicates that development of a viable sanitation market is crucial to improve access to sanitation hardware and associated services and the only sustainable approach to meeting the sanitation needs. The private sector plays an essential role in stimulating and supporting demand for improved sanitation products and services.
Sanitation marketing activities will be intensified, including pilot-testing of promising WASH business models and trainings to local WASH entrepreneurs with the aim to have affordable and appropriate sanitation (and hygiene) related products and services available.
The local government authorities will be encouraged to provide a stimulating environment for the private sector (individual entrepreneur or companies) involvement. As part of the capacity building process, the consortium partners will discuss with the local government different options on how they, as the duty bearer, can cooperate with private sector to ensure availability of sanitation and hygiene products and services for the communities.
Gender and pro-poor
The final evaluation of SHAW Programme highlighted the importance of a gender analysis in the programme implementation. Gender will be internalised in all components of the new programme instead of treating it as a stand-alone topic. Gender will also be included in the capacity building of the local government authorities. In the inception phase, a gender analysis will be conducted to look at practical ways it can be internalised within the STBM implementation.
The programme will make an effort to ensure that an increase in access to sanitation does not exclude the poorest households. This will be done by intensifying advocacy efforts to accelerate the establishment of targeted smart subsidy schemes among the communities in all target villages. For example, encouraging cross-subsidy between the better-off and poorer members of communities.
FIETS Sustainability Framework
The new programme is designed on the basis of the Financial, Institutional, Environmental, Technical and Social (FIETS) sustainability principles. Only when each element is addressed, WASH interventions can achieve long-term, sustainable outcomes that last also beyond the project’s lifetime.
Several key outcome and output indicators that Simavi tracks with its partners from 2016 till 2019 are :
- Strong leadership, commitment and improved capacity of local government (district and sub-district level) to implement and sustain STBM.
- Strengthened capacity of CSOs to lobby and advocate local government to lead STBM implementation and to conduct lobbying and advocacy activities aimed at local and national policymakers who contribute to our specific objective.
- Increased private sector collaboration to improve the supply of WASH products and services.
- A viable implementation model that ensures the adoption of STBM by district government and is developed and tested for potential replication to other districts.