Despite the overall increase of access to improved water supply and sanitation in Indonesia over the past ten years, the country still faces multiple challenges in the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene sectors. Only 52% of the total population has access to improved sanitation facilities. In rural areas this drops to 36%.
The lack of safe drinking water, adequate sanitation and healthy behaviour (in particular the practice of open defecation) by the majority of villagers, constitutes a serious environmental threat to public health and contributes to the spread of diseases. Diarrhoea, as a result from waterborne diseases, remains a serious community health problem, affecting 374 out of every 1000 Indonesians.
The challenges are particularly great in the rural areas of Papua and Papua Barat provinces and the eastern islands of Flores, Timor and Sumba in NTT province. Rural poverty is widespread in these provinces, and sanitation and hygiene conditions are poor. These circumstances, in combination with a lack of knowledge about sanitation and hygiene, seriously undermine the health of the population of Eastern Indonesia. Not only that, but health problems that result from poor sanitation don’t only affect families, but also limit the economic development of the community at large.
- Create an enabling environment for communities to realise a sustainable healthy living environment;
- Promote sanitation and hygiene through coordinated action;
- Increase access to safe drinking water and school sanitation.
- Ensure STBM principles are applied, increase access to water, establish schools as resources centres on STBM and develop sector management at community level;
- Strengthen sector management and develop the enabling environment at district level.
The SHAW Programme is implemented by Simavi together with five Indonesian NGO partners. This rural sanitation programme strengthens the capacity of communities and local governments to establish and implement effective services for improved sanitation, water use and hygiene.
Community based approach
SHAW promotes and implements the Indonesian government national strategy on Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat (STBM) to ensure a sustainable healthy living environment in nine districts. This community based approach for implementing sanitation and hygiene programmes aims to sustain behaviour change via five pillars:
- Open Defecation Free (ODF) Villages;
- Hand washing with soap and running water;
- Drinking water treatment and safe water storage;
- Household solid waste management;
- Household liquid waste management.
Once the communities in a village practice these five pillars, the village is awarded a 100% STBM status.
Simavi implements activities in the communities that principally concern sanitation and hygiene behavioural change, as well as water supply. Together with local partners, Simavi conducts the following activities:
- Working together with village volunteers to motivate communities to change their behaviour based on the five pillars;
- Working with communities and other stakeholders (government, NGO, private sectors) to provide supply to address the demands emerging from behaviour changes, e.g. demand for running water to wash hands, toilets, etc.;
- Working with community groups to address demand for sanitation facilities by piloting a sanitation marketing scheme;
- Lobbying and advocating local government for commitment to continue STBM roll-out after SHAW ends;
- Implementing STBM in schools and engaging elementary school children as agents of change. Since they know that health and sanitation are related, they can share the importance of healthy behaviour with their parents.
SHAW has developed a monitoring programme in which village volunteers visit each home to monitor the level of hygiene and improved practice of all the five pillars. The sub-district head oversees the monitoring in the villages and checks the results. In this way the village’s progress becomes apparent as well as whether further support is needed. At present SHAW partners monitor every village in the SHAW areas at least once per three months.
The specific capacities and roles of every party in a multi-stakeholder approach are key to achieving long term sustainability and the embedding of the programme in government policies.
The Sanitation, Hygiene and Water (SHAW) Programme in Indonesia was planned to come to an end in December 2014. However, following the good result from the final programme evaluation, SHAW was granted a six-month
extension period until June 2015 to ensure a smooth implementation of the exit strategy and to document the knowledge and learnings of the SHAW programme.
These are several key outcome and output indicators that Simavi tracks with its partners:
- 1,482,000 people (target: 761,000) directly reached with education on WASH;
- 564 villages (target: 1,100) declared 100% STBM status, many remaining villages have been verified by the 100% STBM status but are still in the process of getting an official declaration;
- 1,065,000 people (target: 750,000) practice healthier behaviour according all the five pillars of STBM.
- 21 people (target: 14) have been trained on policy influencing or on social accountability;
- 9 recommendations or lobby issues (target: 9) are taken over by authorities;
- 4 districts (target: 9) have allocated budget for continuation of STBM after the programme.
- 183,000 people (target: 32,800) have access to WASH services;
- 1,431,000 people (target: 750,000) utilising WASH;
- 178 water points (target: 0) rehabilitated or constructed.
You can find a complete programme results overview of 2015 here.