April 2015

March 2015

  • Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is one of the fastest growing cities in the world. It currently has 12 million inhabitants and absorbs an estimated 300,000 to 400,000 migrants every year. About 28%  of Dhaka’s total population (some 4 million people) is poor and lives in slums and squatter areas. These are defined as a low-income community (LIC).

    The water supply, sanitation, wastewater and solid waste disposal practices in these slum and squatter areas are poor and unhygienic, resulting in a high prevalence of (waterborne) diseases. These conditions cause serious challenges for the livelihoods of urban LICs. Mortality of children under 5 is 44% higher than amongst children in rural areas, and children living in LICs are 7 times more likely to drop out of primary school, resulting in a 27% lower literacy rate than in rural areas.

    Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (DWASA) is an autonomous and commercial organisation, entrusted with the responsibility of providing water supply, sewerage disposal (wastewater) and storm water drainage services in Dhaka. The pressure from this fast-rising urban population presents DWASA with an ever-increasing demand to scale-up its operations and deliver water and sanitation services to the entire population.


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    Overall objective

    Enhance the operational performance of DWASA and support DWASA in providing water and sanitation services to urban low-income communities.

    Specific objectives

    1. Improvement of design, construction, operation and maintenance practices of deep tube wells (DTWs);
    2. Absorption of new distribution networks and district metered areas (DMAs) in MODS-Zone 5 (delivered by the ADB financed Dhaka Water Supply Sector Development Project), and strengthening of capacities, operations and asset-management practices within these DMAs;
    3. Provision of integrated and sustainable water supply, sanitation and hygiene promotion (WASH) services to Dhaka’s low income areas;
    4. Provision of several on-demand services that support effective implementation of the three objectives above and DWASA’s Turnaround Programme at large.

    Simavi and its local partner DSK support WOP on the provision of sustainable WASH services to LIC areas (specific objective 3). The project will run until September 2016.


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    The Water Operator Partnership (WOP) is a Public Private Partnership. Vitens Evides International (VEI) is the private partner, collaborating with public drinking water company DWASA, and NGOs like Simavi and local partner Dustha Shasthya Kendra (DSK).

    All the groups work together to enhance DWASA’s operations and performance, with a focus on capacity building of public drinking water, sewerage organisation and realising sustainable WASH-efforts in Dhaka.

    Simavi’s activities
    Together with DSK, Simavi will support the Low Income Community (LIC) unit of DWASA in implementing an integrated WASH approach in selected slum areas to create a healthy living environment from a local water resources perspective. They contribute to extending water and sanitation services to LIC areas as well as exploring possibilities to extend sustainable WASH services to squatter areas around textile factories in Dhaka. The FIETS principles are implemented to ensure sustainable change. Proposed activities include:

    • Construction and installation of physical WASH facilities to increase access to, and coverage of, water and sanitation services; and to improve service levels;
    • Hygiene promotion, advocacy and awareness building activities to increase knowledge, change attitudes and ensure adequate hygiene practices;
    • Support and capacity building activities for the community and DWASA, aiming towards sustainable ownership, operation and maintenance of WASH facilities.

    Within the Water Operator Partnership, Simavi offers extensive expertise in Pro Poor WASH to ensure community based WASH management. Simavi and DSK mobilise, organise and empower the community to form a Community Based Organisation (CBO), that assumes responsibility for managing the WASH facilities. In this so-called CBO Model, CBO enters a contract with DWASA, in which DWASA ensures continuous water provision to LIC and CBO ensures that water bills are paid to DWASA.

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    These are several key  indicators that Simavi tracked with its partners in 2016:

    # persons trained to build awareness: 2,538
    # people who participated in awareness raising: 2,645
    # members of community group trained: 45
    # public places with improved WASH facilities: 17


    A complete programme results overview of 2016 can be found here.

    Situation Approach Result
  • Safe water and hygienic living conditions are essential for human health and livelihoods. However, worldwide access to good quality water is unequal, and poor people live in increasingly unhealthy environments causing ill health, economic loss and political tension.

    Despite considerable progress in some countries, 663 million people still lack access to improved water sources, while 2.4 billion have no access to adequate sanitation. The main causes are lack of good governance, both public and private, and no effective political voice for the poor: water and sanitation are not political priorities, citizens’ rights are violated, investments are badly targeted and technology choices are often inappropriate. Lack of local ownership leads to bad maintenance and dysfunctional infrastructures. The private sector could improve the situation, but it isn’t yet geared to successfully service the potentially large market for water and sanitation. To complicate matters, organisations often work in parallel, instead of combining efforts and expertise.

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    Overall objective

    In 2016 the WAI’s  main objective will be to strengthen our position as an innovative player in the international WASH Sector, focusing on sustainability and acceleration.

    Specific objectives

    1. Diversify and expand our funding base, both internationally and in the countries.
    2. Provision of safe water to an additional 140,000 people and improved sanitation to an additional 160.000 people against €18,- per person.
    3. Learn and innovate on sustainability and acceleration.

    The full alliance will learn and innovate in 5 areas:

    1. Sustainability
    2. Acceleration
    3. Innovation on Finance
    4. Innovation on the Environmental Approach and Climate Change
    5. Gender and Social Inclusion
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    The WASH Alliance International (WAI) is a multi-national consortium of over 100 partners worldwide. We are working together with local NGOs, governments and businesses to make sure everybody on this planet has sustainable access to water and sanitation and can make use of it.

    WAI 2016 programme is a follow up from the WASH Alliance 2011 – 2015 programme. The results of our 2011 – 2015 programme show that the Alliance approach is working: we are reaching more people, against declining costs. WAI 2016 allows us to continue our work and reach more people for less.

    In Africa we run programmes in Ghana, Mali, Benin, Uganda, Ethiopia and Kenya. In Asia, we work in Nepal and Bangladesh. In these countries we set up local alliances that enable us to optimally make use of local knowledge and networks and tap into existing WASH structures.

    To realise sustainable access to WASH services for all, we need to drastically change the way we approach this challenge. We contribute to a shift from implementing towards a sustainable WASH sector development approach. This approach will not only sustain after our programmes stop, it will also accelerate and be able to meet the needs of a growing population.

    In the countries in which we are active, we therefore work on changing mindsets and creating systems for sustainable and affordable WASH services that create structural change and can accelerate. This is the only way to adapt to fast population growth and urbanisation.

    We identified five key areas of sustainability that need to be addressed in order to achieve structural impact: Financial, Institutional, Environmental, Technological and Social sustainability. We call this our FIETS sustainability approach.

    WAI 2016 programme is a follow up from the WASH Alliance 2011 – 2015 programme. The results of our 2011 – 2015 programme show that the Alliance approach is working: we are reaching more people, against declining costs. WAI 2016 allows us to continue our work and reach more people for less.

    The DWA collaborates with six thematic partners in the North and a broad group of Southern and Northern civil society organisations (CSOs) on implementing integrated WASH programmes. In total, the DWA currently works with almost seventy southern partners in eight countries: Bangladesh, Nepal, Ghana, Uganda, Kenya, Mali, and Ethiopia.

    To implement its coordinated water, sanitation and hygiene programme, the members of the WAI work with their country programme partners in a multi-stakeholder approach. This involves stakeholders from civil society and the private and public sectors: building civil society up from community level up to local, national and international level, strengthening CSOs and key stakeholders as well as the networks that link them.

    This broad cooperation offers unique added value and covers the entire WASH chain, from water supply to sanitation and hygiene promotion, on community to international level.

    Simavi’s activities

    Simavi supports civil society organisations in seven (out of the eight selected) developing countries in Africa and Asia in implementing programmes that improve sustainable access to and use of safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene. Activities include:

    • Community empowerment through facilitation and training of community interest groups to ensure inclusiveness of the whole community;
    • Awareness raising and demand creation activities on hygiene and sanitation in communities;
    • Setting up coordination structures for WASH sector parties, like small scale entrepreneurs, local government and communities, to discuss problems and monitor progress;
    • Training local NGOs on social accountability tools for local and national advocacy;
    • Linking small scale private sector companies and entrepreneurs and communities to financial institutes for access to credit;
    • Training small scale private sector to provide better services to the intended users.

    DWA seeks to ensure that all relevant stakeholders have the capacity to perform well, leading to improved access to safe drinking water, improved sanitation and hygienic living conditions. By implementing the FIETS sustainability principles and multi stakeholder approach, DWA strives for a ‘systems change and scale’, where civil society, public and private sector all play their roles in providing sustainable access to WASH services, without any international development cooperation subsidies.

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    In 2015, Simavi has focused on implementing its Theory of Change within the WAI programme as well. That means, we simultaneously worked on the three pillars of our Theory of Change.

    Several key outcome and output indicators that WAItracked with its partners, and to which Simavi contributed in 2015, were:

    Empowered communities

    • 168,325 people (target: 358,521) reached directly with education on WASH;
    • 15,844,393 people (target: 5,841,639) people reached through mass media.

    Enabling environment

    • 1,521 people (target: 1,327) people who learned about social accountability or trained on policy influencing;
    • 62 times (target: 15) a social accountability tool is applied;
    • 1,307 representatives (target: 139) at advocacy meetings.

    Sustainable services

    • 587 health workers (target: 239) trained.

    You can find a complete programme results overview of 2015 here.

    Situation Approach Result
  • Access to drinking water and sanitation is a basic human right and an essential condition for a healthy life, but that doesn’t mean it’s distributed equally around the world. Contaminated drinking water, poor sanitation and poor hygiene are an urgent and growing health problem.

    Over 663 million people still use unsafe drinking water sources and 2.4 billion people lack improved sanitation facilities. Contaminated water is the leading cause of preventable diseases (such as diarrhoea, typhus and cholera), deaths and economic loss. More people die of diarrhoea every day than HIV or AIDS – yet this can be easily prevented when adequate WASH services are in place. Furthermore, water is essential for increasing food security and for other development goals, such as education and gender equality.

    Increasing access to safe drinking water and sanitation, and informing communities about proper hygiene, reduces the chances of contracting many diseases. Children go to school more often, families spend less on medication and women have more time for work, the family, housekeeping and food production.

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    Overall objective

    Improve access to, and use of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) services.

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    Realisation of the right to water and sanitation requires (local) government, civil society organisations, the private sector and communities to work together in a concerted effort to change the situation.

    Simavi stimulates local partners to develop and strengthen their partnerships with relevant stakeholders, such as local government and private WASH entrepreneurs, to ensure that everyone involved in the local WASH sector is working with, and complementing, each other. Furthermore, Simavi encourages communities to get together and enables them to demand quality services for safe drinking water, sanitation and good hygiene.

    When a community lacks water – and there are no other plans to improve the situation – Simavi supports local partners in the construction of new community water supplies. The improvement of existing supplies and the training of users and mechanics in sustainable operation and maintenance of the systems provided are also organised.

    Communities are stimulated through participatory discussions, exchange visits and participatory problem identification to address their WASH problems. Awareness on problems related to not using a latrine will increase the construction of household latrines by households, using the resources available to them. Creating revolving funds, or linking to credit facilities, will increase the funding opportunities households have to improve their latrines. Younger generations are exposed to appropriate hygiene behaviour (like using a hygienic latrine and washing hands) via school-based activities like awareness campaigns and improvements to the water supply and sanitation situation.


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    In 2015, the Simavi WASH programme were implemented in the Simavi focus countries with funding from different types of sources, such as foundations and contributions fromthe general Dutch public.

    Together with its partners, Simavi tracked several key output and outcome indicators. These are some of the results:

    Enabling environment

    • 759 people (target: 249) who learned about social accountability or trained on policy influencing

    Sustainable services

    • 942,349 people (target: 529,586) utilising WASH
    • 139,313 people (target: 70,525) with access to improved sanitation services
    • 48,330 households (target: 39,254) with access to water
    • 82 public places (target: 24) with improved WASH facilities

    You can find a complete programme results overview of 2015 here.

    Situation Approach Result
  • Despite the overall increase of access to improved water supply and sanitation in Indonesia over the past ten years, the country still faces multiple challenges in the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene sectors. Only 52% of the total population has access to improved sanitation facilities. In rural areas this drops to 36%.

    The lack of safe drinking water, adequate sanitation and healthy behaviour (in particular the practice of open defecation) by the majority of villagers, constitutes a serious environmental threat to public health and contributes to the spread of diseases. Diarrhoea, as a result from waterborne diseases, remains a serious community health problem, affecting 374 out of every 1000 Indonesians.

    The challenges are particularly great in the rural areas of Papua and Papua Barat provinces and the eastern islands of Flores, Timor and Sumba in NTT province. Rural poverty is widespread in these provinces, and sanitation and hygiene conditions are poor. These circumstances, in combination with a lack of knowledge about sanitation and hygiene, seriously undermine the health of the population of Eastern Indonesia. Not only that, but health problems that result from poor sanitation don’t only affect families, but also limit the economic development of the community at large.

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    Overall objective

    1. Create an enabling environment for communities to realise a sustainable healthy living environment;
    2. Promote sanitation and hygiene through coordinated action;
    3. Increase access to safe drinking water and school sanitation.

    Specific objectives

    1. Ensure STBM principles are applied, increase access to water, establish schools as resources centres on STBM and develop sector management at community level;
    2. Strengthen sector management and develop the enabling environment at district level.
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    The SHAW Programme is implemented by Simavi together with five Indonesian NGO partners. This rural sanitation programme strengthens the capacity of communities and local governments to establish and implement effective services for improved sanitation, water use and hygiene.

     Community based approach

    SHAW promotes and implements the Indonesian government national strategy on Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat (STBM) to ensure a sustainable healthy living environment in nine districts. This community based approach for implementing sanitation and hygiene programmes aims to sustain behaviour change via five pillars:

    1. Open Defecation Free (ODF) Villages;
    2. Hand washing with soap and running water;
    3. Drinking water treatment and safe water storage;
    4. Household solid waste management;
    5. Household liquid waste management.

    Once the communities in a village practice these five pillars, the village is awarded a 100% STBM status.

    Simavi’s activities

    Simavi implements activities in the communities that principally concern sanitation and hygiene behavioural change, as well as water supply. Together with local partners, Simavi conducts the following activities:

    • Working together with village volunteers to motivate communities to change their behaviour based on the five pillars;
    • Working with communities and other stakeholders (government, NGO, private sectors) to provide supply to address the demands emerging from behaviour changes, e.g. demand for running water to wash hands, toilets, etc.;
    • Working with community groups to address demand for sanitation facilities by piloting a sanitation marketing scheme;
    • Lobbying and advocating local government for commitment to continue STBM roll-out after SHAW ends;
    • Implementing STBM in schools and engaging elementary school children as agents of change. Since they know that health and sanitation are related, they can share the importance of healthy behaviour with their parents.

    Monitoring system

    SHAW has developed a monitoring programme in which village volunteers visit each home to monitor the level of hygiene and improved practice of all the five pillars. The sub-district head oversees the monitoring in the villages and checks the results. In this way the village’s progress becomes apparent as well as whether further support is needed. At present SHAW partners monitor every village in the SHAW areas at least once per three months.

    The specific capacities and roles of every party in a multi-stakeholder approach are key to achieving long term sustainability and the embedding of the programme in government policies.

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    The Sanitation, Hygiene and Water (SHAW) Programme in Indonesia was planned to come to an end in December 2014. However, following the good result from the final programme evaluation, SHAW was granted a six-month
    extension period until June 2015 to ensure a smooth implementation of the exit strategy and to document the knowledge and learnings of the SHAW programme.

    These are several key outcome and output indicators that Simavi tracks with its partners:

    Empowered communities

    • 1,482,000 people (target: 761,000) directly reached with education on WASH;
    • 564 villages (target: 1,100) declared 100% STBM status, many remaining villages have been verified by the 100% STBM status but are still in the process of getting an official declaration;
    • 1,065,000 people (target: 750,000) practice healthier behaviour according all the five pillars of STBM.

    Enabling environment

    • 21 people (target: 14) have been trained on policy influencing or on social accountability;
    • 9 recommendations or lobby issues (target: 9) are taken over by authorities;
    • 4 districts (target: 9) have allocated budget for continuation of STBM after the programme.

    Sustainable services

    • 183,000 people (target: 32,800) have access to WASH services;
    • 1,431,000 people (target: 750,000) utilising WASH;
    • 178 water points (target: 0) rehabilitated or constructed.

    You can find a complete programme results overview of 2015 here.

    Situation Approach Result
  • Maji Kwa Afya ya Jamii (MKAJI) is Swahili for ‘Water for community health’ . Water supplies in the Dodoma region of Tanzania are either malfunctioning or non-existent. This poses a great health problem, especially at primary health care level where the majority, almost 70%, of the population seeks healthcare services.

    On request of the Tanzanian government the MKAJI project started in 2014 to improve conditions in rural healthcare facilities in the central region of Dodoma.  By improving access to safe water and improved sanitation and hygiene, the health facilities can offer better health care services to  pregnant women and mothers with small children, and help prevent infections. Over the past 5 years of implementation the MKAJI project upgraded 94 health facilities out of the total of 404 in the Dodoma region.

    The donor of the project is the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC).

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    Overall objective

    Improve access to water, sanitation and hygiene promotion in 94 selected public primary health care facilities in the Dodoma region’s 8 district councils.

    Specific objectives

    1. Improve access to water, sanitation and hygiene in 94 selected public primary health facilities in 8 districts of the Dodoma region
    2. Strengthen the governance and community participation in water management at public primary health facilities
    3. Promote sanitation and hygiene measures and practices at public primary health facilities
    4. Integrate gender and social accountability aspects in the implementation process.
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    Public Private Partnership

    The project is a public private partnership that works with the Netherlands based engineer consultancy firm Witteveen+Bos, local construction contractors, two local NGO’s and local government authorities. The MKAJI project implements unique custom constructions that are designed by the projects engineers and are up to date with the global standards for WASH in healthcare. For the actual construction of the hardware the project works with local private businesses stimulating the local economy.

    Hardware and Software

    For the water supply scheme the project specializes in three sustainable designs: rain water harvesting, borehole drilling or a connection to the existing network. The choice of water supply scheme varies per village as it is depend on the context which solution is the best fit. With regards to sanitation and hygiene we implement waste water drainage systems,  construct toilets, bathrooms for women near the labour room, internal pipe works and handwashing basins in every room of the health facility.

    However, the construction and implementation of hardware water solutions is only half of the work we do. Training and creating ownership within the communities, the software side, is just as important. All our trainings contribute to the sustainability of knowledge and a lasting effect of the project’s efforts.

    Therefore, we train local technicians, community members, health facility staff, traditional birth attendants, local and regional government on WASH practices. This will contribute to the long-term functionality of the constructions and gives the community the know-how to sustain the implemented infrastructure and knowledge. We provide trainings on the following issues:

    • Business models and finance to ensure the water committee in place is equipped with the knowledge to set up a fair and healthy business model for the new water supply.
    • Operation & maintenance of the implemented infrastructures.
    • Water governance. Staff’s from the health facility, the village leaders and the water committee members are trained on the political, social, economic and administrative systems in place that influence water’s use and management. Essentially, who gets what water, when and how, and who has the right to water and related services, and their benefits.
    • Health facility staffs are trained on hygiene measures and protocols for equipment, personal hygiene and hygiene in the building and premises Improving the conditions of their work place to create an infection free environment for the patients, but also for themselves.
    • Traditional birth attendants, community health workers and health facility staff are trained on safe motherhood and hygiene (promoting skilled facility-based deliveries) and the special needs of women in WASH. With this training the MKAJI project aims to reach even those who live most remote and secluded.
    • Social accountability trainings are provided to create a system of regular dialogue between the patients (users) and staff (providers) of the health care facility to discuss problems and find solutions together. From a government perspective the social accountability actions implemented aim to achieve long-term dialogue at various levels through stakeholder meetings and advocacy activities with policy-makers.
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    1,419,891 people of the Dodoma region now have access to better quality health care services. The MKAJI project has brought safe, accessible and affordable water, sanitation and improved hygiene to the 94 targeted communities. This has resulted in a pull factor which increased the number of women delivering their babies at health care facilities, reducing unhygienic and dangerous home deliveries. The trainings of MKAJI contribute to a long term knowledge sharing system that includes both women and man equally.

    MKAJI ProjectTOTAL 2014-2018
    Indicator descriptionTargetsResults
    # Health Facilities provided with an adequate, sustainable and safe water supply and sanitation facilities in the eight district councils of Dodoma region9494
    # Staff members from health facilities that have been trained on hygiene measures and protocols for equipment, personal hygiene and hygiene in the building and premises282311
    # Community members and staff members from health facilities that have been trained on Operation & Maintenance of WASH facilities282183
    # Water comittee members that have been trained on WASH Financing and Business models282249
    # Community members that have been trained on water governance940800

    Situation Approach Result
  • Contaminated drinking water, poor sanitation and poor hygiene are an urgent health problem. Together they form the leading cause of preventable diseases, like diarrhoea, that kills 1.5 million children every year.

    Many primary schools in developing countries have very poor sanitation. Due to inadequate water supplies, deteriorated or insufficient sanitation facilities and a lack of knowledge about hygiene, many children’s water access is limited to quenching their thirst or washing their hands before meals and after a toilet visit. Girls face special difficulties in hygiene practices during their menstruation. Under these conditions schools become unsafe places where diseases are easily transmitted and the health and academic performance of pupils is affected. Increased absenteeism and school drop-out rates damage the future prospects of young people and their families.

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    Overall objective

    Improve the health situation of primary school children and their families in Kenya and Ghana, by providing access to water and sanitation facilities in combination with education on life skills and proper hygiene behaviour.

    Specific objectives

    1. Improved access to water and sanitation facilities;
    2. Increased awareness about hygiene behaviour.


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    The Football for Water (F4W) programme is a Public Private Partnership between the Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) sector and the world of football.

    This programme uses the power of football to teach boys and girls about life skills related to hand washing, clean drinking water and improved sanitation. The combination of football-based life skills education with integrated WASH solutions improves their living conditions and results in behavioural change.

    Simavi’s activities

    Simavi’s approach focuses on WASH in schools with community outreach to change the WASH practices of the whole community. The FIETS principles are applied to these activities to achieve sustainable change. Our activities include:

    • Establishing WASH infrastructure (hardware) in schools, e.g. gender-specific toilets;
    • Implementing Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in school neighbourhoods;
    • Training Community Health Workers (CHWs) to raise awareness of WASH in family homes and via community meetings;
    • Organising WASH social infrastructure (software) in terms of governance, establishing school health clubs and the behavioural change programme;
    • Training school management committees and subcommittees to maintain WASH facilities;
    • Engaging local government partners to ensure they fulfil their roles and responsibilities.

    Special attention is placed on the needs of girls in this programme. They are empowered by establishing their participation in football and hygiene training and the construction of gender-friendly sanitation facilities. This enables more girls to go to school and miss fewer classes during menstruation.

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    Expectations regarding this programme have been achieved. However, the Football for Water (F4W) programme has been running from before 2014. At this time, setting targets and aligning Simavi’s and F4W’s monitoring systems was still a quite challenge:

    • Programmes created before 2016 had to report on common Simavi indicators on common Simavi indicators, which were not set for programmes such as F4W. This led to inconsistencies when setting targets and to capturing only part of the programme realisations. (ex: indicator 1001 counts members of community group trained – F4W is a school programme, therefore, pupils trained were not counted as community members).
    • At the time the F4W programme was designed, targets were not rigorously verified and adapted yearly. The inconsistencies in targets and appearing low results were then accumulated from 2014.

    You can find a complete programme results overview of 2016 here.


    Situation Approach Result

February 2015

January 2015

December 2014

November 2014

October 2014

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